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Thursday, April 7, 2011

Advice on Human Papilloma Virus Vaccine

Posted by Prahallad Panda on 5:59 AM Comments

Please go through the recommendations of Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) on use of Human Papilloma Virus Vaccine (HPV)
Amplify’d from www.cdc.gov
These recommendations represent the first statement by the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) on
the use of a quadrivalent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine licensed by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration on June
8, 2006. This report summarizes the epidemiology of HPV and associated diseases, describes the licensed HPV vaccine,
and provides recommendations for its use for vaccination among females aged 9--26 years in the United States.
Genital HPV is the most common sexually transmitted infection in the United States; an estimated 6.2 million persons
are newly infected every year. Although the majority of infections cause no clinical symptoms and are self-limited,
persistent infection with oncogenic types can cause cervical cancer in women. HPV infection also is the cause of genital warts and
is associated with other anogenital cancers. Cervical cancer rates have decreased in the United States because of widespread
use of Papanicolaou testing, which can detect precancerous lesions of the cervix before they develop into cancer;
nevertheless, during 2007, an estimated 11,100 new cases will be diagnosed and approximately 3,700 women will die from
cervical cancer. In certain countries where cervical cancer screening is not routine, cervical cancer is a common cancer in women.
The licensed HPV vaccine is composed of the HPV L1 protein, the major capsid protein of HPV. Expression of the
L1 protein in yeast using recombinant DNA technology produces noninfectious virus-like particles (VLP) that resemble
HPV virions. The quadrivalent HPV vaccine is a mixture of four HPV type-specific VLPs prepared from the L1 proteins of HPV
6, 11, 16, and 18 combined with an aluminum adjuvant. Clinical trials indicate that the vaccine has high efficacy
in preventing persistent HPV infection, cervical cancer precursor lesions, vaginal and vulvar cancer precursor lesions, and
genital warts caused by HPV types 6, 11, 16, or 18 among females who have not already been infected with the respective HPV
type. No evidence exists of protection against disease caused by HPV types with which females are infected at the time
of vaccination. However, females infected with one or more vaccine HPV types before vaccination would be protected
against disease caused by the other vaccine HPV types.
The vaccine is administered by intramuscular injection, and the recommended schedule is a 3-dose series with the
second and third doses administered 2 and 6 months after the first dose. The recommended age for vaccination of females is
11--12 years. Vaccine can be administered as young as age 9 years. Catch-up vaccination is recommended for females aged
13--26 years who have not been previously vaccinated. Vaccination is not a substitute for routine cervical cancer screening,
and vaccinated females should have cervical cancer screening as recommended.
Read more at www.cdc.gov

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